• Mike Alstrup posted an update 1 week, 5 days ago

    The Capitalist economies in the West had grown stronger and thus their pace of development was sharp and quick, Soviet people, therefore, were forced to believe that open market economies were remedies for backwardness and growth. Ronald Reagan in fact forced Soviets to such a mad race of armament that it could not keep pace with the West. Similarly the introduction of new technologies in various other sectors defeated the conventional manufacturers in Soviet Union to such an extent that not to speak of large industry, even the medium scale industry failed to compete with the West; say for example in the introduction of various types of latest equipments in hospitals for health sector gains.For more than 60 years godless Communism had enslaved people all over the region and espoused that the state was God, the theists lost faith on atheism and the Communists lost control of their empire. Insecurity thus became a factor for out FK-228 of peoples living in a country of which they suddenly found were nowhere the natives; and since Russians had earlier moved either as colonists or else as elites of Communism to various parts of Soviet Union they felt insecure and thus out migration; as their economic, social and political conditions became vulnerable in the entire erstwhile Soviet Union.Political reasonsAs stated earlier, many of the Russian settlers had come to various parts of the Union through several government sponsored programmes, like the development of large Kolkhozes (collective farms), Virgin Land Campaign of 1954, they found that from 1970s Central Asia was no longer a region of development because the projects like Virgin Land Campaign were abandoned. And at the same time several major projects like the new railroad between Baikal and Amur (BAM) were launched in Russia which attracted a labour force of several hundred thousand people, and accordingly many Russians started to move for jobs to other parts of the Union. Further Leonid Brezhnev\’s policy (1970s) of indigenisation made the eponymous population to attain the positions of power. Thus in 1970s out-migrated the very first batch of non-indigenous people from Central Asia who were dominated by the Russians. And also the political conditions that evolved on the eve of dissolution created a threat perception on various accounts as well as because of the state policies that emerged after the independence of 15 new states (besides Russian Federation was formed). It was because from late 1980s, due to the rise of the nationalist movement in the USSR, Russian inflow in Central Asia was affected which also triggered the process of emigration. Russians also got scared from radical movements of religious elements that started to surface in and around the Central Asia before and after the fall of USSR. In this scenario many people envisaged eruption of ethnic clashes and this fear forced many to out migrate to a country of their origin.After the independence, the large scale migration or out migration resulted in that Russians working mostly in government or public administration left for Russia, the population of natives became dominant almost in all job sectors in each and every independent state. It therefore looked as if ethnic cleansing had taken place in public/private sectors, administration or elsewhere and thus Russians were reduced to non-significant minorities (except in Kazakhstan) in all sectors including political structures. All these things reduced the presence of Russians in administrative, cultural and political structures in Central Asia.Even though all the countries in Central Asia have adopted new constitutions that safeguard the rights of minorities including Russians, yet it is also a case that most of the regimes, to begin with, were authoritarian in character and nature and so Russians, already insecure on various accounts, also feared that new regimes were not going to help them and thus the new conditions were not conducive for their living, as in Turkmenistan like suppressing rights under dual nationality provisions. And finally Russia also played its role by granting residence permits to the ethnic Russians living outside Russia.